domingo, 1 de mayo de 2016

THE NATURAL SOCIABILITY OF HUMAN BEINGS


   One of the main characteristics of humans is that we are social beings. But, how can we define society? We can say that society is a group of people who share values, rules and they have the same objectives. Of course there are different types of societies: a football club, an enterprise, the Spanish society…..But the first one we meet is the family.  Normally we don’t belong just to one of them. Can you think of how many types of society you belong to?
   Anyway to be a part of them we must learn its rules, behaviours, values…..We aren’t born with all this knowlege. We call socialisation the process through which we learn all these things. There are also different types of socialisations and there are many ways in which we can classify them, but the most important is to divide them into primary socialisation and secondary socialisation.
   Primary socialisation occurs during childhood. Almost all the things we learn come from our family. With them we have sentimental attachments and that’s the period where we are more flexible to change and we are defenseless. That’s why its effects are durable and can even be irreversible.
    Secondary socialisation takes place afterwards, when we already have the basic rules and values of our society, but we want to belong to other specific ones. For instance, if we want to be a member of a football club or we want to get into a political party….
Although these are the most important ones we can also talk about resocialisation.
   That occurs when you have to re-learn the things you did because they don’t fit with the society you are going to belong. For example, if you have grown up in a very marginal group, this can also be necessary if you move from your home country to another one.
   Finally we can talk about anticipatory socialisation. It occurs when you learn the rules, values….of a group in which you don’t belong, but you would like to be a part of in the future. The benefit of this kind of socialisation is that when you get to be a part of them, you will be easily adapted.
      In all these processes we need to receive information from others, because, as we have said, we are not born with all this knowledge. We name all the elements that transmit this kind of information “the agents of socialisation”. And we said “elements” because it doesn’t have to be a person, it can be also be an institution (like school), books or mass media.
   Exercise.
   Nowadays massmedia helps to shape society, try to find out three examples of how it influences in our daily life.

   Not only there are different societies but there are also different ways of organising them. It happens also in politics, there has been different types: tribe, polis...The state is a modern way of organisation.
 As we know it now, we can say that the states appeared in the Modern Age. They have certain characteristics that differ from other ways of political organisation. These are:
- They have  limited clear territorial borders. And the law affects all the people who live there.
- They have the monopoly of the legitimate violence. This is to say: we all are able to use the violence, but we only accept it when it is used by the state.
- Finally, we say that state is represents the sovereing power, it is the supreme authority. But norwadys, the growing authority os the supra-states bodys question this sovereignty