lunes, 25 de septiembre de 2017

MAIN BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY


     We have said that philosophy is the attempt to understand the reality in a critical way. It doesn´t matter if we focus on the origin of the moral laws or if the question is the meaning of thruth. However, we can talk about different branches of philosophy:
     Epistemology: is that area that asks how do we know, what does it mean? Is it possible to be sure of anything?
     Logic is concerned with the rules we need in order to think confidently and consistently. It happens sometimes that we are right by chance and it also happens that our argumentation is coherent but we are wrong.
     Metaphysics (etimologically beyond physics) refers to the study of being as being. There are different types of being: an idea, a human being, a stone. In a way or another they all are beings, otherwise they wouldn't exist and we wouldn't be able to talk about them. Nowadays they are studied by different areas. For example: medice studies human beings, the stone are studies by geology....On the opposite, metaphysics is not concerned with a particular kind of being, but with the fact of being, it is concerned with the firt principles and causes. Why the being and not nothing?, as Heidegger wrote.
    Ethics is concerned with right and wrong. Which are the desirable goals in life, the origin of our moral rules..
    Aesthetics is concerned with art and beauty Thre are many more divisions that could be addded, philosophy of the science or political phylosophy which is concerned with how we live together as communities.


Excercises

1. Make one question for each of these branches.
2. Read the following text and answer the questions:

     "You will by now have noticed that we talk a great deal about the sort of questions that philosophers ask. There is much less about many of the answers they give. Of course not all philosophers agree about the answers that have been proposed. What is more, they are not always agreed about what questions should take priority. That is part of the eternal fascination of philosophy: there seems to be no prospect of coming to a point where it will be said, "That´s it! The matter has been decided once and for all". In that case, is it worth bothering about? Here philosophers are agreed: yes, it is. But why is philosophy worth bothering about? Here again different thinkers give different answers"

1. Formulate an answer to the last question you have read.
2. Write three important questions that philosophy should do.
3. Why, in your opinion, we hardly find an answer in philosophy with which everybody agrees

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